What Are the Different Types of Blood Disease?

Samples of blood from a healthy person and from one with leukemia, a type of blood cancer.
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  • Written By: Marisa O'Connor
  • Edited By: Melissa Wiley
  • Last Modified Date: 08 July 2014
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There are many different types of blood disease, which are caused by a variety of factors, from genetics to nutritional deficiencies. Anemia, high blood pressure, and blood cholesterol are some well-known types of blood diseases. Sepsis, leukemia, and hemophilia represent a few other examples.

Anemia is a common type of blood disease, of which a deficiency of red blood cells is the primary indicator. There are many different types of anemia, distinguished by the cause of the red blood cell deficiency. Lack of iron, B12 vitamins, or folate can cause anemia. Secondary aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, and pernicious anemia are some examples of the different types of anemia.

Another type of well-known blood disease is high blood pressure. High blood pressure is often referred to as the silent killer, because it frequently shows no symptoms until it is too late to be treated. Monitoring the blood pressure regularly is the best way to keep track of blood pressure levels and help prevent problems. Prolonged high blood pressure can lead to heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke. Regular exercise and a healthy diet are the best way to prevent high blood pressure.


Blood cholesterol is a very treatable type of blood disease. As the name suggests, this disease is caused by a buildup of cholesterol in the blood stream. The cholesterol causes fat to build up on the walls of the arteries that carry the blood throughout the body. When too much blockage occurs, the arteries may narrow so much that blood flow to the heart is inhibited. If this disease is left untreated, it can cause heart attack and death.

Sepsis is a bacterial infection that occurs in the blood and is very serious and life threatening. The bacteria enter the body through open wounds and overwhelm the blood and organs. The sepsis bacteria is spread throughout the body via the blood stream and often causes pus to form in the infected wound. Bed sores, skin disorders, and surgical wounds are the most common causes of a sepsis infection. The gastrointestinal tract, liver, and lungs tend to suffer the most from this type of infection.

One of the most serious types of blood disease is leukemia, commonly known as blood cancer. Leukemia is a malignant condition that causes immature formation of blood cells in the bone marrow. All cancers, including leukemia, are caused by DNA mutations that affect the tumor suppressor genes. Genetics, carcinogens, and radiation are known to play a part in the onset of cancer, but the exact cause remains unknown and may vary with each case. Leukemia is often fatal when left untreated.

Hemophilia describes a blood disease that causes the blood to not clot properly. This is a very rare condition that can be life threatening. This disorder is caused by a lack of proteins in the blood that are responsible for blood clotting. Blood clotting is a necessary part of the healing process, which slows and eventually stops bleeding. Symptoms of hemophilia include longer, excessive bleeding and bruising.


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