What Are the Most Common Eye Defects?

An optometrist examining a patient for eye defects.
Nearsightedness is the most common eye defect.
A person with hypermetropia has difficulty seeing things closes up.
A keratometer can be used to determine the presence and extent of astigmatism.
Blurred vision is a commonly due to an eye defect such as myopia.
A diagram of a human eye.
Article Details
  • Written By: Malcolm Tatum
  • Edited By: Bronwyn Harris
  • Last Modified Date: 15 August 2014
  • Copyright Protected:
    2003-2014
    Conjecture Corporation
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Eye defects are a phenomenon many people deal with daily. In some cases, the defects of the eye are present from birth. Other types of eye defects are developed later in life. There are several eye conditions that are far more common than others. Fortunately, many of these common defects can be treated effectively.

Myopia is easily one of the most common of all eye defects. Known to many as nearsightedness, this condition allows the individual to enjoy clear vision up close, while objects become increasingly blurred as the individual moves further away from them. Myopia is usually an example of eye birth defects, since the condition involves either a lens that is thicker than normal or an eyeball that is smaller than it should be. Corrective lenses and some surgical techniques can compensate for the condition and allow the individual to enjoy a more normal range of sight.

Hyperopia or farsightedness is the opposite of myopia. People suffering with this condition tend to have normal distance vision, but are unable to clearly focus on objects that are close by. This condition is more common later in life, and is usually attributed to a lens that has become too thin, or some condition that has caused the eyeball to increase in size. As with nearsightedness, the use of corrective lenses can partially compensate for the condition and make it easier for the individual to enjoy reading or other activities that require a clear view of nearby objects.

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Astigmatism is a defect that develops due to shifts in the curvatures along the surface of the eye. A person dealing with this condition will not have clear vision in a variety of directions. One particular line of vision will be noticeably clearer than all others. Wearing corrective lenses that feature different curvatures along different planes can help to compensate for astigmatism.

Glaucoma is a situation in which a blind spot develops and slowly begins to expand, effectively obscuring vision. This condition is often due to pressure within the eye. Because glaucoma develops over time, patients often do not notice a difference in vision until the disorder is diagnosed during an eye exam.

Blindness is one of the eye defects most people fear the most. In some cases, blindness is a result of some sudden trauma to the ocular system, such as in an accident where damage to the head is sustained. At other times, the blindness develops over time as a particular physical condition escalates. People suffering with diabetes are more susceptible to a loss of vision than others and must take special precautions to limit the effects of the disease on eye function.

Often, eye defects can be treated or managed in some manner. Along with nutrition and corrective eyewear, there are also surgical options that may help to partially or completely restore full vision. However, not everyone suffering with eye problems will experience the same level of response to a given treatment, or even be eligible for all available treatments. Consulting with a qualified vision healthcare specialist is essential to identifying and implementing the most practical course of treatment.

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Discuss this Article

anon965885
Post 15

I am 17 years old. I am very much worried about my vision. I have blue and yellow coloured vision (e.g., if I see a tube light one side of the light appears as blue and the alternate is yellow). This happens all for the objects. Please help me.

anon329266
Post 13

I noticed a red cloud on my left eyes. It's very obvious. Please what eye condition could this be?

anon303578
Post 12

I just wanted to know what kind of eye defect I have, because when I read, even for just a minute, I get a headache.

anon267602
Post 11

Both my eye lenses are of different sizes. Is this a disease or inherited?

anon252700
Post 9

Are there other ways to improve your eye without having to use glasses?

anon162328
Post 8

I am 46 years old, and cannot see clearly out of my right eye. Please, what can I do for this defect?

anon151282
Post 7

Is there any eye defect called cobble stones?

mariam1
Post 6

i had an argument with my dad today and he said presbyopia is the other name for long sightedness and we argued till we found the right answer here. Because i was right. This site is really good. thanks for earning me more bucks.

anon141308
Post 5

which eye defects are anatomical?

cupcake15
Post 4

Bhutan- I think your question is a good one. I know that laser eye surgery can cost about $2,150 per eye. Although the surgery does wonders for many people, it is not recommended for all cases.

The level of macular degeneration would determine if a patient is a good candidate or not. Only a physician would know the answer to that question. Sorry I could not be more specific.

Bhutan
Post 3

Sunshine31- I did not know that. But can laser surgery help people afflicted with macular degeneration?

sunshine31
Post 2

I just wanted to add that macular degeneration is an eye disorder that often leads to partial or complete blindness.

It most occurs in females over 50 year old. The person afflicted with this disorder begins to need more light initially when seeing something and gradually they begin to not be able to distinguish between colors. This is a degenerative disease in which there is no cure.

I also knew someone that had macular degeneration. They said that it felt like if someone put Vaseline on a pair of glasses and then they had to look through them. Everything always looked blurry and unclear.

I know that taking zinc and anti-oxidants slows the disease and many people live with the disease for quite some time before their vision is completely impaired.

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