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There can be a number of different symptoms of knee nerve damage, but the most common include pain, numbness and tingling, and feelings of burning on or around the kneecap. Some people may also find that they have a hard time moving the joint, or they may feel stiffness or a dull ache when the leg bends in certain ways. Discoloration around the site of the damage is common, too, particularly if the nerve damage was caused by some sort of trauma. A number of different nerves run through the knees, but diagnosing damage can be somewhat tricky. Symptoms are often really similar to other joint problems, including cartilage damage and issues related to arthritis. In general, medical professionals recommend that anyone who suspects they may be suffering from knee nerve damage get evaluated and treated.
The body’s nervous system is a complex series of chemical signals that course along the nerve pathways bringing messages about sensation and pain to and from the brain. Damage can happen almost anywhere, and is usually a result of injury or trauma. Nerves can get pinched, severed, or twisted, and moving joints like the knee provide many different opportunities for this sort of injury. Local nerves can be pinched or squeezed fairly easily between the bones and ligaments that together form the joint.
Some damage is obvious right from the start. This isn’t always true, though, since the damage may not be immediate. Certain knee injuries build on themselves over time. A person may feel as though he or she has healed, but may not realize till later that that healing has actually compromised the nerve structure, for instance; or, a person may not even realize that there’s been an injury at all till certain signs of nerve damage begin appearing.
Pain that seems to radiate out of the knee is one of the most common symptoms of localized nerve damage. This often comes in varying degrees, and can alternate between throbbing and mild, dull aching. Sometimes moving the leg or changing the knee’s position can alleviate pressure, but not always. A lot has to do with whether the nerve damage is accompanied by inflammation or swelling at the site, and how seriously the nerves were impacted.
Nerves are usually responsible for carrying signals to indicate pain, and when they’re damaged they can respond in exaggerated ways — in some cases transmitting signals of pain that are disproportionate with the extent of the actual injury. Pathways that have actually been severed, on the other hand, sometimes fail to transmit any signals of pain, even if it would otherwise be warranted.
Anther major sign of knee nerve damage is numbness or a lack of sensitivity. Numbness may be localized in the knee, or it might radiate to the upper or lower leg. Some people also describe the discomfort as a prickly “pins and needles” sensation. Tingling tends to come and go, but is usually most common after periods of inactivity.
People who have suffered these sorts of injuries sometimes also describe a feeling of burning just below the skin. Some of this is just perception, but in certain cases there are actual local skin temperature fluctuations that go hand-in-hand with these sensations. The patient's knee may feel warm to the touch, or in some cases colder than usual.
In many cases nerve damage can also restrict a person’s movement. Quick kicks, sharp bends, and other extreme or rapid movements may be delayed or too painful to perform. This is usually a result of muscle constrictions that happen in response to nerve signals indicating damage — which is to say, it isn’t caused directly by the nerves, but it is nonetheless closely related.
Patients with nerve damage to the knee may also experience weakness and immobility. This weakness may involve the knee or the entire leg. In some instances, the leg may buckle under and the patient may feel unsteady or lose his or her balance
It’s also possible for the skin along the top or backside of the knee to become discolored. A bluish tinge surrounding the knee may indicate nerve damage, although the condition does not always cause this. Color changes are most common when the damage has been caused by a trauma that has otherwise left bruising on the skin, and in these cases it can be tough to distinguish between specific causes.
Injury to the soft tissue of the knee does not necessarily mean nerve damage has occurred. Ligaments or tendons may have been torn, yet surrounding nerves may be left undamaged. Although a physician or other healthcare expert may recommend a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test to determine if there are tears of tendons or ligaments, nerve damage will not always show up on this imaging, and as such still more testing may be required. In most cases these sorts of extreme measures are only taken if there’s no other way to treat a patient’s symptoms.
Care providers often recommend diagnostic tests if symptoms of peripheral neuropathy are present, which are basically more systemic nervous system problems. A test known as an electromyography (EMG) can determine if symptoms are related to knee nerve damage. From there, medical teams can come up with treatment plans. Sometimes physical therapy and rehabilitation can bring a person back to normal, but in other cases more invasive therapies like surgery are necessary. It’s not always possible to reverse nerve damage, and a lot of times the best that can be done is to mitigate the problem and stop it from spreading or getting worse.
@SarahGen-- Absolutely, knee nerve damage can lead to all of these.
Weakening of muscles is highly likely when the femoral nerve is damaged. This is a major nerve in the leg. When it's damaged, it won't interact with muscles as it should and the muscles in turn stop working. When muscles are not used, they weaken and this may give legs a thinner appearance. For example, the Guillain-Barré Syndrome is a condition where muscles stop working and become weak due to nerve damage.
But there is no way you can diagnose the cause of your symptoms on your own. Weak muscles can cause knee pain and swelling too. It doesn't have to be nerve damage. Getting an MRI and an evaluation by a doctor is the best way to figure out the cause.
Can nerve problems in the knee cause slight swelling? And can it lead to weakening and thinning of muscles in the legs and the feet?
I think nerve damage causes the same symptoms regardless of where in the body it occurs. Years ago, I had a pinched nerve in my back. It caused back pain, stiffness, and tingling and numbness that radiated to my leg. I had surgery at that time and it resolved.
Now, I have a pinched nerve in my knee. I recognized the symptoms right away, because they are the same symptoms I experienced in my back. The only difference is that the pain and stiffness is in my knee. And numbness and tingling radiates to my lower leg.