What is a Serum Antibody?

A serum antibody is an antibody derived from serum, a blood component that is collected after blood has coagulated. As it is collected after coagulation, blood serum does not actually contain blood cells or clotting factors. It does, however, include many different types of proteins that are not involved in the clotting process, including antibodies. Antibodies, or immunoglobulins, are specialized proteins that make up a primary component of the immune system by recognizing and, ideally, disabling foreign bodies, including viruses, bacteria, and other illness-causing agents. It is often necessary to isolate a particular serum antibody from animals for research purposes or from people for purposes of diagnosis or treatment.

There are many different processes in biomedical and biological research that require researchers to isolate a particular antibody from an animal, such as a mouse, rat, goat, or sheep. To gather these antibodies, researchers inject the animal with a specific antigen, or foreign body, that will promote the formation of specific antibodies designed to bind to and disable the antigen. Blood serum containing the antibodies is then collected from the animals. At this point, the substance is generally referred to as "antiserum" because of the emphasis on the antibodies it contains.

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An isolated type of antibody or, in some cases, a group of different serum antibodies are useful in several different types of experiments. The antibodies can, for instance, be "tagged" with fluorescent or easily-recognizable protein markers before being introduced to a blood or tissue sample. The prevalence of a specific antigen can be judged based on the amount of tagged antibody present on the sample. It is important to note that antibodies are highly specific; animals and humans produce specific antibodies to bind to specific antigens. This specificity means that there is generally very little nonspecific binding, so the prevalence of the marked proteins can be taken as a reasonably sure sign of the presence of the antigen of interest.

Antiserum, or blood serum containing an antibody that targets a specific antigen, can also be used as a direct method of treatment. Some diseases are only able to strongly affect individuals who exhibit little immune response. The nature of the individual's immune system or of the disease itself may make it difficult for the necessary immune response to occur. Serum containing the necessary antibody can be transferred from one individual to another. The antibody can fight the illness and can help promote the afflicted individual's natural immune response.

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anon292712
Post 3

How much specific antibody against a specific antigen is in a poly clonal antibody in serum in a person after immunisation?

What is the best time to measure a specific antibody in the serum after injecting a specific antigen into a person?

nony
Post 2

@everetra - I agree. I am also amazed that they can derive these serums by performing experiments on animals like rats.

While I am no fan of animal research, it surely beats using humans as guinea pigs for example. I’m not sure what it is about the anatomy of rats that makes them viable substitutes for humans.

Maybe the reaction of blood to antigens is the same regardless of whether it’s human blood or animal blood, and the resulting antibodies work with humans or animals equally well.

everetra
Post 1

I never cease to be amazed at how serum antibody vaccines are made. The idea that you inject someone or some animal with a disease in order to get an antibody for the disease seems a bit radical, but that’s the way that nature works.

When my son was in the fifth grade he had to do a report on a famous scientist. He chose to do it on Jonas Salk, the scientist who pioneered the polio vaccine.

We worked on it together and read how Salk injected polio into his specimens in order to create the antibodies. My son expressed surprise that this was how it was done, but I told him that sure enough, this was how nature did her work.

I’m glad that scientists have learned to work with nature to create certain cures. I hope that somehow, and soon, they can create cures for other diseases which haven’t been defeated yet, like cancer.

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