What Is the Connection Between the Endocrine System and Digestive System?

The digestive system is responsible for processing food.
The gut is one of the body's largest endocrine organs.
The endocrine system is responsible for producing and regulating hormones in the bloodstream to control bodily functions.
Article Details
  • Written By: H. Colledge
  • Edited By: Heather Bailey
  • Last Modified Date: 21 July 2014
  • Copyright Protected:
    2003-2014
    Conjecture Corporation
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While the endocrine system is concerned with the production of hormones, the digestive system is involved with processing food. Although the two systems seem quite different, the gut is actually the largest of the body's endocrine organs, making the endocrine system and digestive system closely linked. Inside the intestines, ordinary gut cells are interspersed with individual endocrine cells which make up what is called the enteric endocrine system. More than 30 hormones are produced by this system, which regulates the complex process of food's digestion, absorption and incorporation into cells. Endocrinology is the branch of medicine concerned with the endocrine system, while the branch relating to the digestive system is called gastroenterology.

The physiology of digestion involves close cooperation between the nervous system, endocrine system, and digestive system. As well as having its own endocrine system, the gut also has a nervous system, known as the enteric nervous system, which is linked to the central nervous system. Nerves help control food movement, intestinal blood flow and movement of substances across the gut wall. The hormones of the gut endocrine system regulate secretion of substances into the intestines, gut muscle contractions and factors such as hunger and fat metabolism.

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Although the digestive tract is affected by hormones from other endocrine glands, it is most strongly controlled by its own hormones, the chemical messengers secreted by cells in the enteric endocrine system. The hormone gastrin is one of the first to be released during the process of digestion, and cells which produce gastrin, known as G cells, are located in the stomach lining. When food enters the stomach, G cells release gastrin into the blood stream. Gastrin binds to receptors in what are called parietal cells in the stomach lining and stimulates them to secrete acid. As a result of this connection between the endocrine system and digestive system, many potentially harmful microorganisms which enter the stomach with food can be neutralized.

When acid is released from the stomach into the small intestine this stimulates cells in the gut lining to produce a hormone known as secretin. Secretin causes the digestive organ known as the pancreas to release an alkaline fluid, which enters the small intestine and neutralizes the stomach acid. Cells in the bile duct, which leads out of the gall bladder, are also stimulated to release bicarbonate. This interaction between the endocrine system and digestive system protects the small intestine from acid burns. As the gut becomes more alkaline, secretin production is switched off.

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Discuss this Article

burcinc
Post 3

@MikeMason-- Doesn't this syndrome usually result from a tumor in the endocrine system?

I think an abnormal growth in one of the endocrine organs causes endocrine cells in the digestive system to produce more acid.

This actually shows how interlinked the endocrine digestive systems are. In Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, the symptoms are seen in the digestive system, but the cause is actually found in the endocrine system. So treatment has to be directed at the endocrine system which would be the removal of the tumor.

stoneMason
Post 2

My wife has Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. She has very high levels of gastrin and stomach hyper-acidity because of it.

What is the role of the endocrine system in this syndrome?

literally45
Post 1

I gained a lot of weight when I had hypothyroid because of this connection between the endocrine and digestive system.

Thyroid hormones determine the rate of metabolism. My body wasn't producing enough thyroid hormone and so my metabolism slowed down. I became lethargic and gained weight even though I was not eating more than usual.

I was put on synthetic thyroid hormone medication which increased my metabolic rate and I lost the weight I had gained. After a year, my thyroid fixed itself and my metabolism is completely back to normal now. I don't have to take medications anymore either. I'm so grateful.

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