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Scarring of the uterus is typically referred to as Asherman's Syndrome. Several factors such as injury, illness, and surgery can cause this syndrome. Depending on location and severity, uterine scarring can interfere with the ability to become pregnant or to carry a baby full term. Treatment for uterus scar tissue can sometimes reverse fertility problems if scarring is the only problem.
Women who have recently been pregnant are the most prone to developing uterus scar tissue. Surgeries for fibroid tumors or cesarean birth have also caused uterine scarring. In some cases, significant infection, including tuberculosis and pelvic inflammatory disorder, trigger the development of scarring in the uterus.
When uterus scarring interferes with fertility, it is typically due to the inability for a fertilized egg to become implanted in the uterus wall. Scar tissue is thick and hard. The fertilized egg cannot break through to become implanted.
Depending on where the scarring occurs, this condition can also interfere with menstrual cycles. If scar tissue forms on the cervix or in the tubes, eggs can be blocked from traveling. If scars develop over the cervix opening, blood can be prevented from leaving the body.
Though excessive scarring can cause cramping and other symptoms, many times uterus scar tissue is symptomless. The patient finds out it exists during a routine pelvic examination or by going through treatment for infertility. Once the condition is discovered, further examination to find the cause is usually in order.
The most common treatment for uterus scarring is surgery. The surgeon enters the uterus through laparoscopic incisions and cuts away scar tissue. In cases where there is too much scar tissue to cut away, or it is in places that cutting it away would create additional medical issues, the surgeon cuts pathways into the scars. These pathways create enough exposed uterus wall for pregnancy implantation to occur.
While surgery for uterus scar tissue can be initially effective, depending on the cause, scar tissue may return following treatment. The only sure way to permanently eliminate uterus scar tissue is to remove the uterus with a hysterectomy. Women with symptoms of scar tissue or problems with fertility should seek medical evaluations to determine if scarring is present.